DEI E DEE – EGITTO
La dea Maat è sempre rappresentata con una figura esile, gentile e leggera come la piuma di struzzo che reca sul capo e questa sua “leggerezza” evoca una fragilità che si addice simbolicamente a ciò che rappresenta: la Verità, la Giustizia e l’Ordine.
Nel Dizionario della Civiltà Egizia di Posener, si legge:
”Ma se il termine Maat conviene a queste diverse forme della verità e della sua applicazione nella giustizia indica anche qualche cosa d’altro di infinitamente più vasto e sembra persino che i termini di verità e giustizia corrispondano solo a due suoi aspetti”
Ed è così che la divinità femminile si congiunge nel concetto morale e di dogma religioso in quanto l’apprendimento e la comprensione di questo concetto è fondamentale per la conoscenza della civiltà egizia dato che esso costituisce il cardine di ogni sua espressione, la base di tradizione sulla quale è impostata ogni forma di cultura.
Il Ma’at è la verità, la giustizia e l’ordine.
E’ l’ordinamento millenario dell’Egitto.
E’ ciò che è giusto perché è antico
E’ il giusto, collaudato dalla saggezza del tempo e degli dei.
E’ la tradizione del bene ed il bene della tradizione.
Ciò significa che è Ma’at il roteare cosmico delle stelle, del sole e delle ragioni ed il vitale succedersi delle piene del Nilo, l’avvicendarsi dei faraoni e più universalmente la forza benevola che si oppone al Caos.
Tutto ciò costituiva un principio sacro ed inviolabile
L’unico vero dogma della religione era talmente sacro da aver preso corpo nell’immagine di una dea che recava questo nome e che rivestiva un ruolo assai importante nel processo al quale veniva sottoposto il defunto, confrontando il peso della piuma che recava sul capo con quello dei peccati contenuti nel suo cuore.
Erano state diverse comunità sacerdotali a dettare queste teorie, pertanto mancano di univocità, tuttavia la dea Maat , con ciò che rappresentava, fu per tutti ed in tutti i periodi e luoghi dell’Antico Egitto, la figlia e la sposa di Ra, ed impersonò lo stesso principio assoluto legato alla vita dell’uomo onde presiederne le azioni sul piano morale.
Nella moltitudine delle divinità egizie Maat fu l’unica che costituì il riferimento morale di tutti gli egizi, dal Faraone all’ultimo dei servi, ella doveva essere presente nel cuore degli uomini tanto più questi erano delegati a funzioni pubbliche di comando, di responsabilità e di giustizia.
Se si pensa che lo Stato egizio, pur con momenti di alterna fortuna, ha retto per ben tre millenni con la stessa forma di governo e soprattutto in totale assenza di leggi e di costituzioni codificati, appare ovvio che questo Principio-Divinità resse egregiamente il suo ruolo semplicemente evocando ed imponendo in modo efficace e sufficiente un naturale senso morale e di civismo.
In una formula molto riduttiva è la tradizione del bene ed il bene della tradizione.
I 42 giudici del tribunale della sala delle due Maat
61 pensiero su “MA’AT: LA REGOLA”
[…] della verità e della giustizia. Figura nella cerimonia del giudizio del defuntoLa regola di Ma’atMaat è l’incarnazione della giustizia, figlia di Ra “a cui nulla sfugge e padre del faraone, […]
[…] il dio realizzava così l’ordine del mondo nel suo cuore, nello stesso modo della dea Maat (regola di Ma’at)che per mezzo del cuore poteva saggiare le condizioni del […]
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