RELIGIONE – – ANTICO EGITTO

Amuleti: cuore

Il cuore, per gli antichi egizi, era la sede dell’intelligenza, del giudizio e dei sentimenti; non solo gli uomini, ma anche gli dei possedevano un cuore che faceva le veci del moderno cervello.

Nei templi, ogni mattina, era offerto all’immagine del dio, il cuore inteso come ordine, stabilità; il dio realizzava così l’ordine del mondo nel suo cuore, nello stesso modo della dea Maat (regola di Ma’at)che per mezzo del cuore poteva saggiare le condizioni del mondo.

Il cuore “ib” era inteso come coscienza, memoria o coraggio.

Il vocabolo “haty, era tradotto come cuore fisico dell’uomo e dell’anima. Mentre “ib” esprimeva tristezza e inquietudine, “haty” significava paura e debolezza.

In alcune formule dei “Testi delle Piramidi” il cuore appariva con il Ka, altre volte era identificato con il ka e assumeva il ruolo di genio protettore del defunto.

Nel capitolo ventisei del Libro dei Morti troviamo la formula per restituire il cuore al defunto nella Duat. La formula del capitolo trenta doveva invece impedire che il cuore potesse testimoniare contro di lui nella Duat.

Questa formula era incisa sullo “scarabeo del cuore” che era collocato sul petto del defunto vicino al cuore:

”O cuore di mia madre,
o mio cuore vero,
cuore della mia esistenza terrena,
non fare testimonianza contro di me davanti al Signore delle offerte.

Non dire di me:
egli ha fatto questo, in verità.
Per quanto concerne ciò che ho fatto,
non permettere che si erga contro di me,
innanzi al grande dio,
Signore dell’ Occidente.
Salute a te, mio cuore”.

Nella formula seguente si legge:
”Tu sei il mio ka, che è nel mio corpo,
il Khnum che rende prospere le mie membra”.

Khnum era il demiurgo che modellava mediante il fango, sul suo tornio da vasaio, i corpi degli uomini, mentre il ka era considerato una particella del Creatore che viveva nel cuore dell’uomo.

Nel capitolo 125 del Libro dei Morti vediamo il defunto dinnanzi al tribunale di Osiride: in questo giudizio il cuore del morto era posato su uno dei piatti della bilancia per la pesatura, mentre il defunto recitava una “confessione negativa.”

Il cuore, nel giudizio davanti a Osiride, era semplicemente un “testimone”, quindi la sede della memoria la cui testimonianza poteva rivelarsi pericolosa ed ostile.

Per questo motivo era necessario “ingraziarsi” il cuore con varie forme.

Dal Libro dei Morti di Nu formula 27:
E’ proprio questo mio cuore che piange davanti a Osiride e lo supplica per me”.

Il cuore, infatti, poteva intercedere verso il dio aiutando così il defunto.

AMULETI E SIMBOLI SACRI

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