ANTICO EGITTO

Piramidi antico Egitto

La piramide era chiamata MR (pronunciato MER), il prefisso M significa il luogo ed R designa l’atto di salire: quindi luogo dell’ascensione.

In origine la Piramide simboleggiava una scala, mezzo di tramite per la salita verso il cielo.

La piramide è la struttura architettonica caratteristica delle tombe reali dell’Antico e del Medio Regno. Al suo interno veniva garantita la vita del sovrano oltre la morte, nell’oltretomba. Nelle vicinanze sorgevano a volte anche un tempio e a altre costruzioni religiose.

L’edificio racchiudeva la camera funeraria (talvolta sotterranea), dove veniva deposta la mummia del faraone.

Le piramidi testimoniano di un tecnica costruttiva di alto livello, tenuto conto della mancanza di attrezzi in ferro e di macchine per il sollevamento.

Gli strumenti erano in pietra e i blocchi da costruzione, del peso di molte tonnellate, erano trascinati su scivoli e terrapieni in tempi molto lunghi e con impiego di un elevatissimo numero di uomini e animali da tiro.

Eccezionale è la precisione con cui questi monumenti sono orientati astronomicamente rivolti a nord.

Perchè si chiamavano piramidi?

Erodoto visitò l’Egitto tra il 460 e il 455 a.C. Nel suo libro “Storie” appare utilizzata per la prima volta la parola piramide. Il termine serviva forse a designare un dolce greco che richiamava nella forma i monumenti funerari dei grandi faraoni della IV Dinastia.

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