Repubblica Islamica dell’Afghanistan
Lingue ufficiali Dari, pashtu
Capitale Kabul
Superficie Totale 652 864 km²
Continente Asia
Confini Iran, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tagikistan, Cina
Valuta Afghani
Prefisso tel.+93
Sigla autom. AFG
Inno nazionale Sououd-e-Melli
Festa nazionale 19 agosto

Islamizzato nel VII secolo, formò nel X secolo il centro del sultanato turco Ghoznavidi.

Con la penetrazione degli afghani, popolazione iranica, l’Afghanistan prese il nome attuale, ma divenne regno solo nel 1747. Nell’800 fu teatro delle rivalità anglorusse, finchè nel 1879 diventò protettorato inglese, nel 1921 regno indipendente e successivamente repubblica nel 1978.

In quello stesso anno un colpo di stato comunista, guidato dal Partito democratico popolare, provocò (1979) l’occupazione militare da parte dell’allora Unione Sovietica, contro cui si scatenò l’offensiva dei guerrieri afghani. Dopo un conflitto durato dieci anni, che causò anche un esodo in massa di milioni di profughi verso l’Iran e il Pakistan nel 1988-1989, in seguito ad una mediazione dell’ONU, le truppe sovietiche si ritirarono dall’Afghanistan.

Il governo filosovietico di M. Najibullah, che reggeva il paese dal 1987, fu rovesciato nel 1992 dalla resistenza dei mujaheddin islamici, dopo una feroce guerra civile.

Le diverse fazioni della resistenza che facevano capo al presidente B. Rabbani, al primo ministro Hekmatyar, ai generali Massoud e Dostum, divise da rivalità etniche-religiose e dalle pressioni dell’Iran e del Pakistan, non riuscirono ad accordarsi per dar vita ad un governo stabile.

Nel 1995, dopo il fallimento del piano di pace dell’ONU, nello scontro tra le fazioni in lotta prevalse il movimento fondamentalista dei talebani, studenti islamici, che con l’appoggio del Pakistan, presero il controllo militare di varie zone del paese, occupando nel 1996 la capitale e condannando a morte per impiccagione l’ex presidente Najibullah.

I talebani, furono responsabili di un regime integralista, instaurato con il terrore e particolarmente repressivo nei confronti delle donne.

Dopo lintervento anglo-americano nel dicembre 2001 si insediò il governo provvisorio guidato da Hamid Karzai, candidatura indicata dall’ex re Zahir Shah, rientrato dall’esilio nel 2002, anno in cui Karzai è stato confermato alla presidenza del paese dalla Loya Jirga (Gran Consiglio Tribale) composto da 1551 delegati delle diverse etnie.

Karzai rimarrà capo di stato dell’Afghanistan sino al settembre del 2014.

L’invasione sovietica
Anni di guerra, migliaia di morti e profughi per il Vietnam russo.
Ahmad- Shah-Massoud
IL leone del Panshir
I talebani
I Talebani nascono dalla Madrasse, le scuole coraniche private sorte in Afghanistan e Pakistan per la preservazione dell’integrità dell’interpretazione teologica del Sacro Corano.
Zahir Shah
L’ultimo re che difendeva i diritti delle donne
Hamid Karzai
Fu il primo presidente eletto in Afghanistan in carica dal 7 dicembre 2004 al 29 settembre 2014

346 pensiero su “AFGHANISTAN”
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