STORIA DEGLI STATI

Cipro

Durante il corso della sua storia, quest’isola di 9.251 Kmq, fu usata come base strategica o commerciale. Nell’epoca moderna è stata teatro di scontri tra le due comunità che vi risiediono: i Greco-ciprioti e i Turco-ciprioti.

Abitata sin dal 4000 a.C., intorno al 200 a.C. era la più grande produttrice di rame del mondo, tanto che la parola Kypros indicava sia il nome greco dell’isola, sia il nome di questo minerale.

Cipro fu colonizzata dai greci intorno al 1500 a.C., mentre i Fenici vi si insediarono attorno all’800 a.C.

In seguito conobbe la dominazione di Assiri, Egizi, Persiani, Greci, Romani e dei Bizantini.

Agli inizi del Medioevo, Riccardo I d’Inghilterra, durante la terza crociata la sottrasse ai Bizantini e nel 1192 ne fece dono ad un nobile francese, Guido di Lusignano. I suoi discendenti regnarono nell’isola fino al 1489, quando Venezia se ne impadronì nel 1489.

Conquistata nel 1571 da Turchi, da allora cominciò a costituirsi sull’isola una comunità turca separata.

Nel 1878, Cipro passò dai Turchi agli Inglesi.

Nel XX secolo, sorse nella comunità greca un movimento a favore dell’Enois (l’unione con la Grecia) che nel 1954 sfociò in rivolte contro i Turchi e gli Inglesi.

Il movimento, guidato da un ex ufficiale dell’esercito greco il colonnello Grivas, era formato da guerriglieri dell’E.O.K.A. (Organizzazione Greca dei Ciprioti Combattenti).

Nel 1956, accusato dagli Inglesi di complicità in atti di terrorismo, l’arcivescovo Makarios fu deportato. Nel 1959, quando si raggiunse un accordo per l’indipendenza, l’arcivescovo tornò nell’isola e fu eletto presidente.

Nel 1963 scoppiò una guerra civile in seguito ad un tentativo di dare alla comunità greca il controllo del governo centrale.

Nel 1964 un contingente dell’O.N.U. fu inviato nell’isola per mantenervi la pace. Tuttavia nel 1967 la tensione tra le due comunità aumentò e la Turchia minacciò di invadere l’isola per proteggere la minoranza turca.

1974. Un colpo di stato, ispirato dai Greci, depose Makarios costringendolo alla fuga e provocando l’intervento della Turchia, le cui truppe sbarcarono sull’isola. Dopo aspri combattimenti cade la giunta militare greca e il colpo di stato fallisce.

Nell’agosto del 1977 muore Makarios.

Il 15 novembre 1983, avviene la proclamazione unilaterale della Repubblica Turca di Cipro Nord, presieduta da Rauf Denktas, ma viene riconosciuta unicamente dal governo turco.

Nel febbraio del 2003 vengono indette le elezioni presidenziali, vinte da Tasso Papadopoulos, capo del partito di destra Diko. Nell’aprile 2003 si aprono le frontiere tra le due parti in cui è divisa l’isola e circa un terzo della popolazione si sposta da una parte all’altra.

Nel 2004 è indetto un referendum per il piano di riunificazione. La maggioranza (64,90%) dei votanti nella zona turca è favorevole, mentre la maggioranza (75,83%) dei votanti nella zona greca è contraria.

Nello stesso anno Cipro entra a far parte dell’Unione Europea, ma solo nella sua parte greco-cipriota.

Nel 2005 Mehmet Ali Talat, moderato pro-riunificazione vince le elezioni presidenziali nella Repubblica Turca di Cipro Nord.

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