MITOLOGIA GRECA

Afrodite, dea greca dell’amore, è la dispensatrice della bellezza e del fascino in seguito identificata con la Venere romana. Era la moglie infedele di Efesto, poichè la dea era simbolo dell’amore fisico e non dell’amore coniugale che era protetto da Era.

Afrodite
Sono due le versioni della sua nascita.

Per Omero era figlia di Zeus e di Dione. Per Esiodo, invece, la dea nacque dalla schiuma del mare di Pafo fecondata dagli organi genitali di Urano, gettati dal figlio Crono dal quale era stato evirato.

Secondo un racconto di Omero Efesto, dopo aver scoperto Afrodite e Ares che giacevano nel letto nuziale, li imprigionò finchè non intervenne Poseidone che propose una riconciliazione. Ares e Afrodite ebbero tre figli: Deimo e Fobo (il terrore e la paura) e Armonia, che a Tebe sposò Cadmo. Probabilmente ebbero anche Eros, che riunisce in sé gli attributi di Afrodite e di Ares.

La dea era solita schermire gli immortali. Zeus, infuriato, la punì facendola innamorare di un mortale: Anchise con il quale generò Enea.

Innumerevoli furono le avventure che Afrodite ebbe con gli altri dei: Dionisio con il quale generò Priapo, la divinità fallica, Poseidone dal quale ebbe Erofilo. Amò Adone a causa del quale litigò con Persefone e quando Adone fu ucciso dal cinghiale, Afrodite fece nascere dal suo sangue gli anemoni rossi. La dea aveva il potere di far innamorare tutti gli dei, o di suscitare in loro un’intensa passione, eccezione fatta per Atena, Artemide ed Estia.

Adone
Adone

Quando respinse le proposte di Ermes, Zeus mandò la sua aquila a rubare il sandalo di Afrodite. Per riaverlo, la dea passò la notte con Ermes e dalla loro unione nacque Ermafrodito, creatura dal doppio sesso.

Il mito più importante che la riguarda è quella del giudizio di Paride, che è all’origine della guerra di Troia.

Durante le nozze di Teti e di Peleo, Eris (la discordia) lanciò in mezzo agli invitati una mela d’oro, sulla quale era scritto: alla più bella. Era, Atena e Afrodite rivendicarono tutte e tre questo titolo. Zeus incaricò Paride della decisione. Le dee cercarono di corrompere il giovane, che decise di attribuire la mela d’oro ad Afrodite in cambio dell’amore della più bella tra le donne.

Afrodite era implacabile con gli dei e con i mortali che si vantavano di esserle superiori. Per esempio con Pasifae, moglie di Minosse re di Creta, che si innamorò di un toro e diede alla luce il Minotauro o con le donne di Lemno che trascuravano il suo culto.

Fu particolarmente crudele verso il figlio di Teseo, Ippolito, che disprezzava la passione amorosa.

Fece innamorare disperatamente di Ippolito la sua matrigna Fedra. Quando si vide respinta Fedra raccontò a Teseo che il giovane aveva tentato di violentarla, quindi si impiccò. Teseo, cacciò in esilio il figlio e lo maledisse. Ippolito morì poco dopo di morte violenta. Afrodite si vendicò anche della musa Clio, che la scherniva per la sua passione per il mortale Adone, facendola a sua volta innamorare di un mortale. La musa Calliope, giudice tra Persefone e Afrodite, nel corso della contesa a proposito di Adone, fu punita con la morte di suo figlio Orfeo.

Per castigare Eos (l’aurora), che aveva ceduto ad Ares, suo aiutante, la fece innamorare di due giovani mortali Cefalo e Titone. Solo una volta un mortale riuscì ad avere la meglio su di lei e Afrodite fu obbligata ad abbandonare il campo di battaglia di Troia, ferita da Diomede.

403 pensiero su “AFRODITE”
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