EX – JUGOSLAVIA
Nel 1875/76 la Bosnia Erzegovina e la Bulgaria insorsero contro il dominio di Costantinopoli.
La repressione turca diede spunto alla Russia, che si atteggiava tradizionalmente a protettrice dei popoli slavi, per entrare in guerra contro la Turchia a cui impose il Trattato di Santo Stefano.
Il trattato prevedeva uno smembramento quasi completo dell’Impero ottomano. La costituzione di un grande stato bulgaro, praticamente vassallo della Russia, suscitò le proteste dell’ Austria-Ungheria, direttamente interessata alla situazione balcanica, e dell’Inghilterra, che vedeva minacciato il Mediterraneo orientale.
La guerra fu evitata grazie alla mediazione di Bismark, cancelliere tedesco, che convocò a Berlino nel 1878 un congresso tra le grandi potenze.
Vi fu una revisione sostanziale del trattato di Santo Stefano, limitando fortemente l’autonomia della Bulgaria, ed approvando la piena indipendenza di Montenegro, Serbia e Romania. La Bosnia e l’Erzgovina furono lasciate in “amministrazione temporanea” all’Austria la quale, con tale congresso, riuscì a strappare alla Russia il predominio sui Balcani.
Il Congresso fornì una sistemazione delle frontiere che rimase pressoché invariata fino alle guerre balcaniche. Stabilì la netta prevalenza degli interessi delle potenze europee sulle aspirazioni degli stati balcanici e della stessa Turchia.
Alla raggiunta stabilità dei confini non corrispose, nei decenni successivi, una crescita della stabilità politica della regione.
L’Impero turco, si dimostrò del tutto incapace di realizzare riforme politiche al suo interno. Le stesse potenze europee iniziarono nel XX secolo a pentirsi per aver dato vita a stati troppo piccoli per essere vitali sotto il profilo economico e militare.
Si cominciò a parlare di balcanizzazione per intendere la condizione di disordine interno e di precarietà di rapporti internazionali in cui versavano tutti gli stati balcanici.
In tale contesto in tutti i paesi presero piede ideologie nazionaliste con grande rapidità. Si crearono miti popolari e ambizioni nazionali sicuramente sproporzionati alla effettiva forza economica, politica e militare dei paesi balcanici.
- Dal VI secolo ai turchi
- Sloveni e croati
- Impero asburgico
- La politica di Bismark
- La prima guerra mondiale
- Serbi, croati e sloveni
- Il regno di Jugoslavia
- La seconda guerra mondiale
- La resistenza Cetnica
- La resistenza di Tito
- La Jugoslavia con Tito
- La repubblica Federale
- L’ascesa del nazionalismo
- La crisi jugoslava
- Le vicende nella Serbia
- Autonomia Slovena
- La Croazia
- Bosnia e Herzegovina
- La guerra in Bosnia
- Gli accordi di Dayton
- La crisi del Kosovo
- Il crollo di Milosevic
- Sviluppi recenti
- Per sapere qualcosa di più
112 pensiero su “LA POLITICA DI BISMARK”
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