EX – JUGOSLAVIA
Diversa fu l’esperienza storica degli sloveni e dei croati.
Gli sloveni, che riuscirono a creare nell’VIII secolo un proprio principato indipendente, caddero già all’inizio del IX secolo sotto il dominio dei franchi, per entrare successivamente nell’orbita della casa d‘Asburgo.
Divisi in ben sei contee e principati, privi di una nobiltà propria, quasi scomparvero dalla scena storica. Conservarono la lingua come unica loro identità.
I croati, invece, costituirono già nel X secolo un regno abbastanza potente, che nel XII si unì, per vicende dinastiche, alla corona d’Ungheria. Conservrono la propria individualità storica.
In seguito i croati persero parecchi territori ceduti ai turchi o ai veneziani (la Dalmazia fu veneziana dal XV secolo al XVIII secolo).
All’inizio del Cinquecento, con gli ungheresi, riconobbero il dominio degli Asburgo, l’unica potenza capace in questa parte d’Europa di tenere testa ai turchi.
La casa d’Asburgo assorbì dunque nei suoi possedimenti anche una parte delle terre croate, garantendone gli antichi privilegi e impegnandosi a difenderle.
Costituì lungo la frontiera bosniaca un cordone sanitario, in cui insediò i fuggiaschi serbi.
Il territorio fu sottratto all’amministrazione di Zagabria e sottoposto direttamente al ministero della guerra di Vienna. I suoi abitanti erano dei soldati-contadini, obbligati a lasciare i campi e a combattere quando ce ne fosse bisogno.
La frontiera militare, che complicò notevolmente la struttura etnica della Croazia orientale, divenne così un’ulteriore barriera fra i popoli slavi, che vivevano al di qua e al di là di essa.
I bosniaci e i serbi, inseriti nel mondo orientale, i croati e gli sloveni in quello dell’europa centrale.
Alla fine del ‘600 e ai primi del ‘700, gli Asburgo, dopo la sconfitta dei turchi nel 1683, riuscirono, con una serie di vittoriose campagne, a penetrare in profondità nei Balcani spingendosi fino alla regione del Kosovo.
Dovettero però ben presto ritirarsi e stabilire la frontiera sul Danubio.
Con loro partirono anche centinaia di migliaia di serbi, che furono insediati nelle fertili terre sulla riva sinistra del Danubio, nella cosiddetta Vojvodina.
Questa regione, posta sotto la corona d’Ungheria e di struttura etnica assai mista (serbi, ungheresi e altre undici etnie), divenne il centro culturale e religioso più importante del popolo serbo.
Il vuoto che i serbi lasciarono nel Kosovo – già fulcro del loro impero medioevale – fu invece colmato dagli albanesi, che da sempre si trovavano in quella regione, ma erano stati spinti nelle aree montuose meno fertili.
Queste vicende, che contribuirono ancora alla frammentazione del popolo serbo furono provocate dalla progressiva decadenza del potere ottomano.
Si trattò di un processo lungo, ma inarrestabile che i popoli slavi, soggetti ad Istanbul, cercarono di sfruttare a proprio favore.
La Serbia insorse contro i turchi in due riprese:
la prima (1805-1813) e la seconda (1815-17) guerra d’indipendenza che condussero al trattato di Adrianopoli (1829) che sanciva l’autonomia della Serbia la quale rivendicherà poi il ruolo di stato guida della riscossa nazionale jugoslava.
In seguito l’impero ottomano dovette concedere l’indipendenza alla Grecia (1830).
- Dal VI secolo ai turchi
- Sloveni e croati
- Impero asburgico
- La politica di Bismark
- La prima guerra mondiale
- Serbi, croati e sloveni
- Il regno di Jugoslavia
- La seconda guerra mondiale
- La resistenza Cetnica
- La resistenza di Tito
- La Jugoslavia con Tito
- La repubblica Federale
- L’ascesa del nazionalismo
- La crisi jugoslava
- Le vicende nella Serbia
- Autonomia Slovena
- La Croazia
- Bosnia e Herzegovina
- La guerra in Bosnia
- Gli accordi di Dayton
- La crisi del Kosovo
- Il crollo di Milosevic
- Sviluppi recenti
- Per sapere qualcosa di più
68 pensiero su “SLOVENI E CROATI”
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