AMULETI ANTICO EGITTO

Pilastro Djed
In questa raffigurazione si può vedere il Faraone aiutato da Iside drizzare un pilastro che prima si trovava in posizione orizzontale.

Il Pilastro Djed, antichissimo simbolo divino di cui è ancora incerta la natura. Poteva rappresentare un albero sfrondato, un piolo intagliato o la colonna vertebrale di Osiride.

Era venerato nelle regione di Menfi e da qui ne fu elaborato il culto.

L’identificazione di Ptah con Sokar e di quest’ultimo con Osiride favorì l’estensione a quest’ultimo del rito Djed e fu da allora considerato come un simbolo di Osiride.

L’erezione coincideva con la festa di Sokar che avveniva il primo giorno del primo mese d’inverno. Allo stesso tempo si celebrava la festa dell’incoronazione del Faraone che veniva fissata in quel giorno senza tenere conto della data reale dell’inizio del regno del re.

Durante l’epoca tinita (I e II Dinastia) questa festa aveva assunto un’enorme importanza per la monarchia egizia.

Troviamo una scena dell’erezione del pilastro rappresentata nella tomba di Kheruef, un alto funzionario vissuto a Tebe durante il regno di Amenothep III.
Il rito era il cuore della cerimonia presieduta dal Faraone alla quale partecipava una folla di persone e sembra che l’avvenimento si rifacesse ad una vicenda storica. Il sovrano era accompagnato dalla regina e dalla famiglia reale.

In occasione della cerimonia alcune persone chiamate “gli abitanti di Pe e gli abitanti di Dep”, combattevano con dei bastoni, mimando la presa di Buto da parte dei “Seguaci di “Horus”.

Questa scena evocava la vittoria del Sud sul Nord e l’unificazione del Paese. Aveva anche un significato religioso nel quale era simboleggiata la rinascita di Osiride, identificato con il pilastro Djed, alla presenza del Faraone nuovo Horus.

Il pilastro Djed, che significa anche stabilità, veniva utilizzato per innumerevoli talismani per la protezione dei vivi, per simboli propiziatori riprodotti sulle mura dei templi e per amuleti per i defunti.

A volte il pilastro viene umanizzato con la corona atef e due arti superiori, con le mani che sostengono due scettri heka.

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