VITA DOPO LA MORTE NELL’ANTICO EGITTO

Rituale apertura bocca
Tutankhamon: rituale dell’apertura della bocca

Il rituale dell’apertura della bocca è una delle funzioni liturgiche più antiche della religione egizia, già in uso nell’Antico Regno e che assunse la sua forma definitiva solo nel Nuovo Regno.

Una testimonianza importante si può ammirare nella tomba di Sethi I dove lungo le pareti dell’ipogeo si susseguono una serie di riquadri contenenti settantacinque scene con immagini e formule.

Il rituale (upra) officiato da sacerdoti iniziati alla sacra scienza, con riti e pratiche magiche doveva dar vita alla statua che incarnava il defunto (simulacro) quando essa ancora si trovava nel laboratorio dove era stata ultimata. Dopo il rito la statua veniva portata nella cappella del tempio.

L’animazione aveva lo scopo di poter far svolgere alla statua le funzioni del defunto.

Si effettuava simbolicamente con l’apertura degli occhi e della bocca per mezzo di alcuni strumenti rituali. Uno era il dito d’oro, un oggetto in oro o in pietra dipinta raffigurante due dita affiancate e l’altro era una piccola ascia.

Unzione e vestizione della statua, recitazione di formule magiche per l’animazione, fumigazioni con incenso e natron e presentazioni di offerte facevano parte di questo complesso rituale. Seguiva quindi il sacrificio di un toro, le cui parti tagliate erano presentate al defunto, per donargli sostentamento, forza ed energia vitale.

Deposto il corpo mummificato nel sarcofago il rituale veniva nuovamente officiato, in modo da restituire al defunto l’uso delle facoltà vitali così che il suo ka potesse sopravvivere nella Duat.

Il sacerdote (sem) nelle vesti di “Horo come figlio di Osiride e del defunto stesso”, sfiorava il viso del morto da una parte con un’accetta e dall’altra con uno scalpello, così da rendergli l’uso della bocca e degli occhi.

Apertura della Bocca raffigurazione papiro di Hunefer
Apertura della Bocca raffigurazione papiro di Hunefer

In principio il rituale dell’apertura della bocca era officiato in un laboratorio sacro, il Castello dell’Oro. Questo era annesso ad ogni tempio dove veniva fabbricate le statue, gli ornamenti e tutto il materiale necessario per il culto.

In seguito furono chiamati così tutti i laboratori funerari, compresi quelli relativi all’imbalsamazione.

Nel Nuovo Regno il rito veniva praticato nel quartiere della necropoli e ben presto divenne usuale officiare l’Apertura della bocca all’ingresso della tomba sul sarcofago contenente la mummia in posizione eretta.

  • La mummificazione
  • Rituale dell’apertura della bocca
  • I riti per la resurrezione
  • I quarantadue giudici del tribunale della sala delle due Maat
  • La confessione
  • La pesatura del cuore – il Giudizio Divino
  • L’aldilà – Duat
  • Il viaggio dell’anima nell’aldilà
  • I Campi Iaru e campi Hotep
  • Cibi e vestiti di pietra nell’aldilà
  • Ushabt
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