Il pavone, che ci affascina con il dispiegarsi a forma di ruota delle penne della sua coda, nella simbologia è considerato un simbolo del Sole.
Attraverso Babilonia, la Persia e l’Asia Minore, giunse a Samo, dove diventò l’uccello sacro del santuario di Era.
Nel V secolo a.C., ad Atene, si pagava un biglietto per vedere i pavoni considerati rarità esotiche, mentre nel II a.C. a Roma divennero gli animali sacri di Giunone.
In India molte divinità erano raffigurate a cavallo di questo splendido animale e nel mondo occidentale era apprezzato come cacciatore di serpenti.
I colori cangianti delle penne della coda erano messi in relazione con la capacità del pavone di tramutare il veleno in sostanza solare.
Se in Oriente, in special mondo presso la setta curda degli Yedizi, il pavone Melek Taus era ritenuto un messaggero divino, nel mondo islamico simboleggiava il cosmo o i grandi corpi celesti del Sole e della Luna.
Nel Cristianesimo era un elemento positivo in quanto la sua carne era considera incorruttibile, (simbolo del Cristo nel sepolcro) ed il fatto che perda le penne e poi le riacquisti in primavera era la rappresentazione del rinnovamento e della resurrezione.
Troviamo un’interpretazione negativa nel testo protocristiano Physiologus dove il pavone viene così descritto:
”Gironzola, prova piacere nel guardarsi, scuote il suo piumaggio, si esibisce e si guarda attorno con superbia. Quando però osserva le proprie zampe, non può che lanciare un grido di rabbia, perché esse non corrispondono affatto al resto del suo aspetto”.
Dal Medioevo in poi, nei bestiari, il pavone simboleggiava la boria, il lusso e la superbia. Il significato positivo che l’uccello aveva in Cina era dovuto all’influenza esercitata dalla cultura indiana
La dea Sarasvati cavalca un pavone, Indra siede sul trono del pavone. Il pavone incarna la bellezza e la dignità, scaccia le forze maligne e danza quando vede delle belle donne.
Nell’iconografia alchemica la coda del pavone, dotata di colori cangianti, è il segno visibile del processo per cui sostanze vili si tramutano in sostanze superiori.
A volte, però, può simboleggiare anche il fallimento di un processo che lascia dietro di sé solo scorie.
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