SETH

DIO ANTICO EGITTO

Dio Seth antico Egitto

Seth, dio dell’antico Egitto,chiamato il “Signore della tempesta”, era una figura molto vicina alle grandi divinità asiatiche:
Teshub il dio urrita del cielo e della tempesta.
Enlil il dio dell’atmosfera della mitologia mesopotamica, che con gli dei An/Anum ed Enki/Ea costituiva una triade cosmica.
Ishkur (figlio minore di Enlil) dio della pioggia e della tempesta nella mitologia mesopotamica .
Baal dio della tempesta nella mitologia fenicia.

Questo dio rientra nelle figure dualistiche.

Infatti alcuni epiteti del dio erano: “grande del valore” e “grande di magia“.L’ascia usata nel rito dell’apertura della bocca sarebbe stata composta con “metallo creato da Seth”.

Secondo la teologia eliopolitana Seth era figlio di Geb e Nut, la sua sposa era la sorella Nefhti.Tuttavia nessuna delle unioni con le molte donne possedute è stata feconda e questo probabilmente veniva messo in relazione con la sterilità dei deserti sui quali si estendeva il potere di Seth.

Nel deserto orientale, zona di Avaris e Tanis, Seth era assimilato al suo omonimo cananeo Sutek, e sposo della dea palestinese Anat. Ad Ombos, presso Nagada centro della prima civiltà predinastica, Pietre nel 1895 individuò una necropoli in cui abbondavano iscrizioni e dediche a “Seth l’Ombita”, citato nei “Testi delle Piramidi” per l’appunto come colui che risiede ad Ombos.

Seth e Horus erano le due divinità che simboleggiavano l’Egitto nelle due componenti etniche.

Tutte le popolazioni asiatiche che si insediarono in Egitto, a cominciare dagli Hyksos, ebbero in Seth la loro divinità principale. Gli egizi provavano un forte sentimento di ostilità verso questo dio straniero che assunse il ruolo di dio malvagio nel mito di Iside e Osiride. Seth era ritenuto il dio della negatività e del male. Ovvero la personificazione della violenza e della malafede. La sua voce era il tuono e quando egli urlava la terra tremava. Poteva dare ordini alle nubi scure e scatenare le burrasche del vento del sud.

Raffigurato come uno strano quadrupede, forse un formichiere o un okapi, per alcuni aveva gli occhi neri a causa del suo rapporto con l’oscurità, mentre per altri erano rossi, colore che gli egizi detestavano .

In origine Seth era venerato come dio locale nel quinto e nell’undicesimo distretto dell’Alto Egitto. Nel periodo preistorico fu dio di tutto l’Alto Egitto. Secondo l’egittologo Jaroslav Černý il culto di Seth fu introdotto sotto il regno di Peribsen nella II Dinastia, nella regione del Delta orientale. A partire dall’epoca eliopolitana, i re che governarono l’Egitto dal nord al sud erano “Servitori di Horus”, quindi nemici di Seth.

La città di Ombos, in cui si trova il santuario di Seth, probabilmente ebbe un ruolo importante nell’unificazione del sud.

D’altra parte questo è il solo mezzo per spiegare il ruolo attribuito a Seth nel Nuovo Regno. La caduta di questo regno portò alla sconfitta di Seth, che fu particolarmente perseguitato dall’odio dei vincitori e il mito gli attribuì la completa responsabilità della morte di Osiride.

La logica dell’interpretazione del mito porta a supporre, sul piano politico, che i distretti del sud abbiano provocato la caduta del regno terreno di Osiride. Al termine della II dinastia, il faraone Seth Peribsen adottò come dio della famiglia e del paese Seth al posto del nome di Horus .

L’ultimo re della dinastia, Khasekhemui, ricorse ad un compromesso e associò nel culto dinastico Horus e Seth.
Ovviamente questo dualismo, di origine politica, aveva ben poco a che fare con la religione. Costituì un fatto unico nella storia egizia e non ci fu un seguito. All’inizio della III dinastia Horus riprese il suo ruolo di protettore dei faraoni.

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