GUERRA DEL VIETNAM

Truppa Usa
Tra gennaio e dicembre del 1965, il numero dei soldati americani salì da 23.000 a 184.000 unità.

L’8 marzo 1965, cominciarono i primi arrivi con lo sbarco della 9ª Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) a Da Nang. Seguì un costante impegno dei marines nella 1ª Corps Tactical Zone (CTZ), nelle province settentrionali.

Nel mese di agosto, la 9ª MEB fu ampliata sino ad essere trasformata nella 3ª Marine Amphibious Force, che comprendeva quattro reggimenti.

Il 5 maggio 1965, la 173ª brigata Aviotrasportata (The Herd) fu trasferita da Okinawa a Bien Hoa.

In un primo tempo considerata come aggiunta temporanea all’ordine di battaglia del Military Assistance Command Vietnam’s (MACV), la 173ª doveva essere sostituita dalla 1ª brigata della 101ª divisione Aviotrasportata.

Alla fine di luglio la situazione era tale che entrambe le brigate trovarono un impiego permanente.

Il 21 settembre, la 1ª divisione di Cavalleria (aviotrasportata) fu spostata da Fort Benning ad An Khe (2ª CTZ). Ad ottobre l’intera 1ª divisione di Fanteria( Big Red One) fu assegnata alla 3ª brigata della 25ª divisione di Fanteria (Tropic Lightning).

Per ogni formazione erano compresi tutti i servizi di supporto, artiglieria, genieri, personale medico ed i mezzi aerei.

Il 26 maggio arrivarono 800 soldati australiani, mentre la Nuova Zelanda annunciava l’invio di un battaglione

L’incidente del Golfo del Tonchino
Il 6 agosto 1964 il Congresso degli Stati Uniti approvò la “Risoluzione del Golfo del Tonchino”, con la quale si autorizzava il presidente Lyndon Johnson a prendere tutte le misure necessarie per respingere gli attacchi contro le forze americane.

Imboscata nel Triangolo di Ferro
Agosto 1965 Le Truppe USA intraprendono le operazioni nel famoso Triangolo di Ferro, uno dei principali santuari del fronte di liberazione.

Napalm e Agente Arancio
I primi voli avevano a bordo piloti sud vietnamiti, e i Ranch Hand era considerati semplici “consiglieri” del programma Farm Gate, ma il comando da parte vietnamita era solo sulla carta e presto furono messi da parte.

Sentiero di Ho Chi Min
Fu un’impresa enorme, ma alla fine il Sentiero di Ho Chi Minh fu trasformato in una rete funzionale di collegamento tra Nord e Sud

Arruolamento
Impopolare, ingiusto e viziato da pregiudizi razziali. Questo fu il sistema d’arruolamento che mandò a combattere 2 milioni di americani.

Le truppe USA
Tra gennaio e dicembre del 1965, il numero dei soldati americani salì da 23.000 a 184.000 unità.

I nuovi arrivati
In Vietnam un soldato appena arrivato era trattato dal suo plotone come una non-persona da evitare finché non diventava come gli altri

Vietcong: la tattica
Anche se ben armati, i soldati americani erano letteralmente travolti dai viet cong che attaccavano in massa, si impossessavano delle armi e sparivano nuovamente nella boscaglia

Offensiva del Tet
Gli Stati Uniti erano in Vietnam, da circa tre anni. Perchè furono sorpresi dall’Offensiva del Tet?

Nasce la protesta pacifica
“Sono convinto che bombardare con il napalm i villaggi vietnamiti sia un atto immorale”

L’inferno di Khe Sahn
Quota 881Sud era una delle alture che sovrastavano la base di Khe Sanh, una collina dalle pendici ripide che s’ innalzava di 500m sopra le valli

Programma Phoenix
A causa dell’alto numero di esecuzioni il programma Phoenix fu accusato di essere un programma di massacro voluto dalla CIA. Alcuni membri dichiararono in seguito, che le uccisioni indiscriminate erano frequenti.

Operazione Starlite
L’Operazione Starlite, 18 agosto 1965, fu il primo impegno importante degli Stati Uniti in Vietnam

Operazione Ivory Coast
Il 21 Novembre 1970 una forza d’assalto americana attaccava un complesso militare nord-vietnamita per liberare dei prigionieri di guerra.

Medevac
Le missioni di evacuazione sanitaria seguivano tutte la stessa procedura. Veniva richiesto l’intervento di un elicottero “medevac” con una chiamata priorità-1

La mobilità aerea
La prima guerra combattuta da elicotteri, fu proprio quella del Vietnam

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