ARRUOLAMENTO

GUERRA DEL VIETNAM

Arruolamento

Impopolare, ingiusto e viziato da pregiudizi razziali.

Questo fu il sistema d’arruolamento che mandò a combattere 2 milioni di americani. I coscritti incapaci di fornire risposte esatte almeno al 31% dei test, erano mandati al fronte.

Il progetto prevedeva che il servizio di leva servisse, tra le altre cose, ad elevare il “livello culturale” di chi era meno istruito. Invece ci si limitava a mettere un fucile in mano anche a chi era totalmente incapace di combattere.

Durante la guerra del Vietnam 8.720.000 ragazzi partirono volontari, 2.215.000 furono coscritti, 15.980.000 riuscirono a non mettere piede nell’inferno Vietnam.

Solo il 3,5% ( circa 570.000 ) risultarono tecnicamente “renitenti alla leva” perché non si erano presentati alla chiamata o erano fuggiti all’estero.

15.410.000 giovani ottennero legalmente il rinvio, l’esonero o l’inabilità al servizio militare.

Ci fu chi si dichiarò obiettore di coscienza, chi si sposò o si autoinflisse mutilazioni.

Tuttavia il sistema di gran lunga più usato fu l’iscrizione a scuole superiori o università.

Sotto le armi andarono solo il 23% degli studenti ed il 45% dei laureati. Gli studenti appartenevano alle fasce benestanti, quindi fu subito chiaro che a combattere sarebbero andati quelli delle classi povere.

Le disuguaglianze del sistema di circoscrizione furono l’emblema del famigerato “Progetto 100.000” varato dal segretario della difesa Robert McNamara nel 1966, in cui apertamente si riproponeva di usare le forze armate come collettore per i ragazzi meno dotati.

In seguito alle crescenti proteste, ci furono alcuni tentativi per rimediare al sistema della circoscrizione.

Nel 1967 fu abolito il rinvio alla chiamata per i laureati e nel 1969 fu introdotto un sistema di sorteggio, nel 1971 furono abbandonati altri esoneri, come quello per gli studenti del college.

Troppo tardi per rendere equo il sistema di circoscrizione.

L’amministrazione Nixon, nel gennaio 1973 fu costretta ad introdurre un sistema esclusivamente volontario

L’incidente del Golfo del Tonchino
Il 6 agosto 1964 il Congresso degli Stati Uniti approvò la “Risoluzione del Golfo del Tonchino”, con la quale si autorizzava il presidente Lyndon Johnson a prendere tutte le misure necessarie per respingere gli attacchi contro le forze americane.

Imboscata nel Triangolo di Ferro
Agosto 1965 Le Truppe USA intraprendono le operazioni nel famoso Triangolo di Ferro, uno dei principali santuari del fronte di liberazione.

Napalm e Agente Arancio
I primi voli avevano a bordo piloti sud vietnamiti, e i Ranch Hand era considerati semplici “consiglieri” del programma Farm Gate, ma il comando da parte vietnamita era solo sulla carta e presto furono messi da parte.

Sentiero di Ho Chi Min
Fu un’impresa enorme, ma alla fine il Sentiero di Ho Chi Minh fu trasformato in una rete funzionale di collegamento tra Nord e Sud

Arruolamento
Impopolare, ingiusto e viziato da pregiudizi razziali. Questo fu il sistema d’arruolamento che mandò a combattere 2 milioni di americani.

Le truppe USA
Tra gennaio e dicembre del 1965, il numero dei soldati americani salì da 23.000 a 184.000 unità.

I nuovi arrivati
In Vietnam un soldato appena arrivato era trattato dal suo plotone come una non-persona da evitare finché non diventava come gli altri

Vietcong: la tattica
Anche se ben armati, i soldati americani erano letteralmente travolti dai viet cong che attaccavano in massa, si impossessavano delle armi e sparivano nuovamente nella boscaglia

Offensiva del Tet
Gli Stati Uniti erano in Vietnam, da circa tre anni. Perchè furono sorpresi dall’Offensiva del Tet?

Nasce la protesta pacifica
“Sono convinto che bombardare con il napalm i villaggi vietnamiti sia un atto immorale”

L’inferno di Khe Sahn
Quota 881Sud era una delle alture che sovrastavano la base di Khe Sanh, una collina dalle pendici ripide che s’ innalzava di 500m sopra le valli

Programma Phoenix
A causa dell’alto numero di esecuzioni il programma Phoenix fu accusato di essere un programma di massacro voluto dalla CIA. Alcuni membri dichiararono in seguito, che le uccisioni indiscriminate erano frequenti.

Operazione Starlite
L’Operazione Starlite, 18 agosto 1965, fu il primo impegno importante degli Stati Uniti in Vietnam

Operazione Ivory Coast
Il 21 Novembre 1970 una forza d’assalto americana attaccava un complesso militare nord-vietnamita per liberare dei prigionieri di guerra.

Medevac
Le missioni di evacuazione sanitaria seguivano tutte la stessa procedura. Veniva richiesto l’intervento di un elicottero “medevac” con una chiamata priorità-1

La mobilità aerea
La prima guerra combattuta da elicotteri, fu proprio quella del Vietnam

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