RELIGIONI – DOTTRINE – SETTE

Valdesi
Rogo dei Valdesi

Il valdismo nacque come movimento religioso a carattere papuperistico *-evangelico composto soprattutto da artigiani e contadini.

Fu il lionese Pietro Valdo che nel 1176 si liberò di tutti i suoi beni e iniziò a predicare il vangelo tra le classi più umili, attirando compagni e seguaci.

Nonostante il movimento, all’inizio, non ebbe alcun atteggiamento contro la chiesa, fu subito perseguitato e nel 1184 condannato perché, con la predicazione dei laici, affermata dai valdesi come un diritto, veniva a meno la mediazione ecclesiastica. Durante il XIII e il XIV secolo, il Valdismo rimase un movimento di carattere evangelico senza nessuna organizzazione teologica.

Tuttavia alcune affermazioni, tra cui l’uguaglianza di tutti i fedeli, minavano alla base le strutture della Chiesa e la sua stessa ragione d’esistere.

I Valdesi predicavano la povertà, vivendo d’elemosine per desiderio di perfezione, al contrario dei Catari che lo facevano per odio del possesso. I Valdesi rifiutavano i sacramenti impartiti dai sacerdoti negavano la transustanziazione*, la validità della messa e la comunione dei santi e dei morti,

Nonostante la condanna ecclesiastica, si diffusero in Provenza, nel Derlfinato, in Lombardia, in Germania e Svizzera, giungendo fino in Austria, Spagna, Ungheria, Polonia e Boemia, dove resistettero a lungo fondendosi poi con gli Ussiti *, e dove, si pensa, Valdo sarebbe morto nel 1217.

Duramente perseguitati da Innocenzo III che nel 1198 bandì contro di loro una crociata, e poi ancora alla fine dei secoli XIV e XV, in Italia resistettero nella Alpi Cozie, fra la Francia e in Piemonte, nascondendo la propria fede, fino al tempo della Riforma protestante, quando assunsero una propria autonomia di fronte alla Chiesa di Roma.

Pauperismo:
fu un movimento spirituale medioevale, caratteristico degli ordini mendicanti e di altri predicatori cristiani che ne esaltavano il messaggio religioso e sociale.

Transustanziazione:
la presenza reale del Cristo nel sacramento eucaristico, attraverso il passaggio del pane e del vino in quella del corpo e del sangue di Cristo in virtù delle parole della consacrazione pronunciate dal sacerdote durante la Messa.

Ussiti:
Seguaci del riformatore religioso boemo J. Hus, condannato nel 1415 al rogo dal Concilio di Costanza, dove era stato invitato da Sigismondo di Lussemburgo a difendere le sue tesi, che prevedevano la possibilità di ribellarsi ai sacerdoti e al papa.

POTREBBE INTERESSARTI
L’Inquisizione

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