Rogo dei Valdesi

Il valdismo nacque come movimento religioso a carattere papuperistico *-evangelico composto soprattutto da artigiani e contadini.

Fu il lionese Pietro Valdo che nel 1176 si liberò di tutti i suoi beni e iniziò a predicare il vangelo tra le classi più umili, attirando compagni e seguaci.

Nonostante il movimento, all’inizio, non ebbe alcun atteggiamento contro la chiesa, fu subito perseguitato e nel 1184 condannato perché, con la predicazione dei laici, affermata dai valdesi come un diritto, veniva a meno la mediazione ecclesiastica. Durante il XIII e il XIV secolo, il Valdismo rimase un movimento di carattere evangelico senza nessuna organizzazione teologica.

Tuttavia alcune affermazioni, tra cui l’uguaglianza di tutti i fedeli, minavano alla base le strutture della Chiesa e la sua stessa ragione d’esistere.

I Valdesi predicavano la povertà, vivendo d’elemosine per desiderio di perfezione, al contrario dei Catari che lo facevano per odio del possesso. I Valdesi rifiutavano i sacramenti impartiti dai sacerdoti negavano la transustanziazione*, la validità della messa e la comunione dei santi e dei morti,

Nonostante la condanna ecclesiastica, si diffusero in Provenza, nel Derlfinato, in Lombardia, in Germania e Svizzera, giungendo fino in Austria, Spagna, Ungheria, Polonia e Boemia, dove resistettero a lungo fondendosi poi con gli Ussiti *, e dove, si pensa, Valdo sarebbe morto nel 1217.

Duramente perseguitati da Innocenzo III che nel 1198 bandì contro di loro una crociata, e poi ancora alla fine dei secoli XIV e XV, in Italia resistettero nella Alpi Cozie, fra la Francia e in Piemonte, nascondendo la propria fede, fino al tempo della Riforma protestante, quando assunsero una propria autonomia di fronte alla Chiesa di Roma.

fu un movimento spirituale medioevale, caratteristico degli ordini mendicanti e di altri predicatori cristiani che ne esaltavano il messaggio religioso e sociale.

la presenza reale del Cristo nel sacramento eucaristico, attraverso il passaggio del pane e del vino in quella del corpo e del sangue di Cristo in virtù delle parole della consacrazione pronunciate dal sacerdote durante la Messa.

Seguaci del riformatore religioso boemo J. Hus, condannato nel 1415 al rogo dal Concilio di Costanza, dove era stato invitato da Sigismondo di Lussemburgo a difendere le sue tesi, che prevedevano la possibilità di ribellarsi ai sacerdoti e al papa.


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