Il divorzio di Lotario

Il trattato scritto nell’860 dall’arcivescovo di Reims, Incmaro, per opporsi al divorzio di un nipote di Carlomagno, re Lotario II dalla regina Tetberga, dà un’idea precisa sui presunti “malefici” in materia sessuale all’epoca carolingia.

Il re, privato di legittima discendenza, voleva separarsi da Tetberga per sposare l’amante Valdrada dalla quale aveva avuto un figlio.

Per ottenere il divorzio accusò la moglie di aver avuto, prima del matrimonio, una relazione incestuosa con il fratello Uberto, abate di Saint Maurice d’Agaune. Confessandosi la regina ammise la sua colpa, ma il segreto fu violato ed in seguito la regina ritrattò. Il re, però, continuò nel persistere a volersi separare e fece approvare la sua decisione da alcuni vescovi della Lorena votati alla sua causa.

Incmaro si oppose al divorzio e si appellò al Papa.

Il suo trattato si presentava con una serie di domane alle quali lui stesso dava risposte ben argomentate. L’”Interrogatio XV” chiedeva se esistevano donne capaci di far nascere tra una coppia, un “odio senza rimedio” mediante malefici e, viceversa, se avevano il potere di suscitare un “indicibile amore”. Chiedeva se Lotario non era stato in grado di generare un erede perché impedito dai sortilegi di Valdrada.

Raccontava, Incmaro, di aver conosciuto un giovane nobile che, per i sortilegi un’antica contadina, per due anni si trovò nell’incapacità di poter consumare il suo matrimonio. Narrava, inoltre, di aver sentito parlare di “atti sacrileghi” destinati a proteggersi da questi malefici e che anche persone guarite dalla benedizione della Chiesa, facevano uso di pozioni composte da ossa di morti, ceneri e carboni spenti, di capelli e di peli provenienti dal sesso di uomini e donne, di erbe varie, di conchiglie e di parti di serpente.

Incmaro descriveva così le vittime dei malefici.

C’erano quelli che impazzivano per effetto di bevande o cibo offerto loro dagli stregoni, quelli che venivano aggrediti dagli spiriti maligni. Uomini che subivano l’azione delle strige (le streghe) o indeboliti dalle lamie ( figure in parte umane e in parte animalesche); donne con cui sarebbe giaciuti di i dusii (demoni che tentavano di insidiare le donne per compiere atti osceni) assumendo l’aspetto di uomini e che le facevano ardere d’amore.

Le descrizioni d’Icmaro sono interessanti sotto parecchi punti di vista, si può notare la diversificazione tra stregoneria benefica e/o malefica, la distinzione tra il ruolo maschile e quello femminile; inoltre come gli autori di alcuni penitenziali, insiste sulla credenza dell’azione degli spiriti del male sull’impotenza o sulla sterilità.
I nomi che dà a questi spiriti appartengono alla tradizione tramandata da Agostino e da Isidoro di Siviglia e fortemente ispirata alla cultura antica.

Divorzio nell’antico Egitto

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